X
تبلیغات
رایتل
مهندسی شهرسازی
مهندسی شهرسازی ارشد مهندسی شهرسازی بازار کار شهرسازی 
طراحی سایت حرفه ای



 Smart city challenges

 

Meisam Shahbazi, Department of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Mohsen Dadkhah, Department of urban planning and Urban Design, Amin Institute of Higher Education, Isfahan, Iran

Majid Mozoon, MA. Student of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Mohammad Reza Amirzade, MA. Student of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

 

 

Abstract

Smart City, smart world, smart place or in other words that all smart life today Smart City is expressed in metaphor become an integral part in discussions. The future of cities in this article will attempt despite all the uncertainty and lack of clarity over the whole of smart barriers and challenges in Smart and Implementation of measures and techniques designed to achieve these goals are ambitious and challenging worldwide, the measures and initiatives are often smart. This paper examines various aspects challenging Smart deals and the scale of the challenges in infrastructure, Finance and funding, management and organization, teaching and learning, urban design, and main shareholders, cooperation and the technology has been studied. Smart city before, during and after the Challenges that will face the realization and influenced their success and ignore those Smart cities due to failure or failure of the function.

Keywords: Smart City, Challenges of Smart City, Smart City Planning, Financial Challenges of Smart City, Educational Challenges of Smart City, Urban Design


Cited: 

APA
Shahbazi, M., Dadkhah, M., Mozoon, M., & Amirzade, M. R. (2015). Smart City Challenges. Social Behaviour and Personality43(2).
Chicago
Shahbazi, Meisam, Mohsen Dadkhah, Majid Mozoon, and Mohammad Reza Amirzade. "Smart City Challenges." Social Behaviour and Personality 43, no. 2 (2015).
Harvard
Shahbazi, M., Dadkhah, M., Mozoon, M. and Amirzade, M.R., 2015. Smart City Challenges. Social Behaviour and Personality43(2).



download full article 


 Smart city challenges

 

Meisam Shahbazi, Department of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Mohsen Dadkhah, Department of urban planning and Urban Design, Amin Institute of Higher Education, Isfahan, Iran

Majid Mozoon, MA. Student of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Mohammad Reza Amirzade, MA. Student of urban planning, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

 

 

Abstract

Smart City, smart world, smart place or in other words that all smart life today Smart City is expressed in metaphor become an integral part in discussions. The future of cities in this article will attempt despite all the uncertainty and lack of clarity over the whole of smart barriers and challenges in Smart and Implementation of measures and techniques designed to achieve these goals are ambitious and challenging worldwide, the measures and initiatives are often smart. This paper examines various aspects challenging Smart deals and the scale of the challenges in infrastructure, Finance and funding, management and organization, teaching and learning, urban design, and main shareholders, cooperation and the technology has been studied. Smart city before, during and after the Challenges that will face the realization and influenced their success and ignore those Smart cities due to failure or failure of the function.

Keywords: Smart City, Challenges of Smart City, Smart City Planning, Financial Challenges of Smart City, Educational Challenges of Smart City, Urban Design

 

Introduction

With the increasing awareness of environmental concerns, Urbanization and Technical development together with an urgent need and an opportunity are led to rethink about the How to build and manage our cities. In recent decades, the development of these issues are interconnected, as it has led to new "Smart cities" are closer together (Hӧjer & Wangel, 2015) and information technology Communications and IT infrastructure as a smart city platform is very important. It may be smart city but people are not able to use the facilities, services and training. The concept of smart cities, benchmarking and implementation major challenges faced during implementation. Failure to provide proper defined in smart cities failure and have access to mislead people and may even be therefore, the first step should be paid to the definition of a smart city. Smart access to known standards must consider all aspects and Refine by each city and, on the most important challenges facing smart cities they had been on the run. Smart cities have urban challenges of urbanism, Environmental pollution and technological challenges in fact, solving the challenges of today's cities will be the realization of smart cities in this study, and these challenges are discussed.

More than half the world's population now live in urban areas, The change of the rural population to urban population designed to another two decades will continue to be one of the remarkable density and Ultra lead to chaos and confusion felt helpless population in those places will be Cloud towns and cities also created new professionals Air pollution is a difficult process to manage scarce resources. Problems relating to human health. Congestion and traffic jams are: The deteriorated infrastructure and adequate instruments and Old of the most important technical and Physical problems that are materially different set of problems than technical, Physical, material and organizational population such problems arising from various stakeholders is very much dependent on each other for the purposes of Their values ​​together to compete to seek social and political problems This seems to be more complex urban problems. Ensure favorable conditions in the context of a rapidly growing urban population to understand the more the concept of smart leads. It is necessary to control conflicts many cities in the world to find smarter ways to manage them. The cities are described mainly with the tag smart city The way to achieve a stable and smart urban achieving urban life It was seen a dramatic increase in the frequency of use of the term smart city clear understanding of the concept is still at the forefront of education and the Kurds there Articles in this issue was mainly limited to systematically Start babes those related to the phenomenon of urbanization in the smart cities This paper aims to fill this gap by identifying the key processes involved and Research programs of the cities through investments to Smart offers them to study the total number of articles on a wide variety of disciplines Such as e-commerce. Information science, urban studies. And public administration Identify and assess the challenges and success factors influence the government initiative In order to reach our smart urban eight major components of Principles Smart cities and then to identify a coherent framework to guide Studies offer a smart city. (Shahbazi et al, 2013)

Redefining the smart city

Much of the literature on smart cities, Or on particular types of ICT (such as electronic services or travel planners), specific opportunities and challenges (Such as extensive data), or on specific fields of application (Such as smart transportation planning or scheduling Smart land use) stresses. Still, Examples of definitions can be found in smart. The definition Giffinger et al (2007) the word smart, Looking to the future-oriented manner that the future development of the smart city Issues such as awareness, flexibility, mobility, Self and includes strategic behavior.  Toppeta (2010) has emphasized the development and livability. Washburn et al (2010) consider that the smart city Includes a set of computational intelligence technologies and On the day of solidarity and networking technologies implies IT systems, a detailed knowledge of the real world advanced analytical calculations and operations provides that Optimize business processes makes the assumption comprehensiveness and breadth of perception of a smart city can be stated that Large organic systems, many subsystems and components are connected together. In a study by Harrison et al. (2010) Smart city, urban, useful, valuable and smart in all dimensions where with the use of tools and data integration, in the real world makes life meaningful. Smart word entry analytical process. Modeling, optimization and information refers to the process of smart building due to become operational decisions. In contrast to the above definition, Natural Resources Defense Council of Europe (2009), smarter word Receive urban, more efficient, more stable and more rational and more popular Defines. Dirks and Keeling (2009) defined a Smart City Organic compound that is known to the system the relationship between the central city of Smart Systems Smart system for attention In other words, no system alone does not mean System in a smart network together and find meaning. Kanter & Litow (2009) recognizes that smarter urban Organic is a continuous system and network. While the system is mainly in the industrial cities Skeleton not suitable for industrial-smart cities Like organisms that neural systems Evolve and cause them to be smarter performance and The most effective combination of smart  cities Digital Communication Networks, Comprehensive artificial intelligence (brain), detector, and Tags (organs detector or sensor) and  Software (ability perceptual awareness).

In other examples to make it clear that this concept, many researchers to study the regional knowledge center Vienna University of Technology was done, refer, where the concept city smart action in six areas or species considered (Hӧjer & Wangel, 2015):

·         Smart Economy

·         Smart Move

·         Smart Environment

·         Smart people

·         Smart Living

·         Smart governance

Smart City is an urban infrastructure, information and communication technology as a versatile, Reliable, flexible, accessible, secure and flexible, and have promoted thus elevate the quality of life of citizens, economic growth significantly (E.g. more and better jobs and higher living standards for its citizens) The realization of the health of citizens (including medical care, welfare, education and physical security) Improved stable (responding to the needs of tomorrow's needs today without damage) and Services based on physical infrastructure (such as transportation, water, public services (energy), Radio communications, and manufacturing sectors) have been developed, the prevention and Management of natural and man-made disasters (including the ability to predict the impact of climate change), Strengthened and moderation in government and policy enforcement mechanisms and Participatory processes are realized.

Obstacles hampering the creation of Smart cities

Factors inhibiting factors which lack access Realization of smart and always will be in cities as diverse as they are challenging. Immaturity or poor standards contributed to the creation of smart and Include lack of access to technology, lack of funds Due to the high administrative costs, lack of support for Management processes, lack of IT subsystem and communication, lack of coordination among the elements of design, implementation and Different sectors (lack of joint programs) and Lack of awareness of citizens and On the other hand, policy decisions made and fragile, Lack of public participation, and cross-hasty decision Neglect of stakeholders and interest are included (lee, 2012).


Smart urban planning challenges

Smart cities, a concept is developed. In the previous section, it was proposed definition the main inhibiting factors were examined. In this section, five challenges that need to be considered for planning the idea of Smart cities is offered.

 

Table 1: challenges planning Smart cities

Challenge

Description

Strategic Assessment

When you define a smart, sustainable cities, clearly, the assessments in relation to the concept is needed. Methods and techniques must be developed and to be applied. Approach is required that it can be to identify which solution is required to be used, and vision-system applied for evaluating the effects of proposed solutions. Otherwise, “Smart, sustainable cities" accepts the risk that As a term and content remain valid. Development of assessment methods, it is necessary to remember that In practice, the evaluation indicators employed In assessing the most important features of a smart, sustainable city Defines. Also, as notedIt is essential to bear in mind that the different objectives Conflicting interests, how to prioritize them. It is possible incompatibilities between dimensions of sustainability (E.g. inconsistency between biofuel and food production) or within (e.g. inconsistency between biofuels and biodiversity).

Reducing measures

Historically, the development of infrastructure and investment, Us to the substantial progress in the field of welfare and Wealth has led. Through the deployment of systems To manage transportation, power, water and wastewater, Has improved the lives of billions of people. As part of it, Infrastructure to develop efficient systems Have made it possible to trade and business types.  Infrastructure development, from different aspects, The backbone of modern society. However, the infrastructure, the destruction of ecosystems and Exploitation of natural resources (to the extent that the same life Threaten modern society) is also possible.  ICT as well as other infrastructure, somewhat similarly Operates today and maintenance of ICT in Community development, and plays an increasingly important role Have the potential to support a sustainable community Of resources is effective. However, Can modern society to become more efficient machine that On the ground, the excessive exploitation.An example of the use of ICT to increase Traffic flow in the city.  If steps are taken to make the journey easier, Traffic associated with negative environmental impacts of their Will increase. The development of traffic to Be seen alongside other measures. Similarly, Likely countermeasures will be required The potential sustainability of ICT to find other examples. Cities must simultaneously reducing measures Technology to improve productivity by encouraging operate, And the need to carefully consider how ICT can shape society.

Top-down and bottom-up

Products, services and systems, real smart, sustainable cities, Such offers may be large-scale, From major companies such as Cisco, Ericsson, Siemens IBM or their source. One of the potential benefits of such solutions, top to bottom, the Such giant corporations, financial ability to Full deployment assessments that have been described, And can be used as a real tool suppliers and Municipal service managers need to act. However, there is a risk that the power of giant corporations, empower them so smart, sustainable city development Partly triggered the creation of monopolies and Destroy creativity. Bottom-up approach can By small communities and other local communities or Small-scale initiatives represent Many cities, The creative potential through people's participation in the formulation and Solve problems are expected. One of the weaknesses of this approach, The solution is to transfer to the next level can be Is very difficult, so we are heading towards the solutions of small-scale pieces have in fact, Have the ability to make a big change. Another weakness of this approach,The identification and assessment of actual results can  Is very difficult. It may be that Supports multiple initiatives, the chances for the above Will increase. That may be true, But it is also likely that other cases of inappropriate sustainability perspective.

Competence

As mentioned earlier, the challenges, Initiatives emanating from massive investments can Very effective. Performance may be ways to Implementing appropriate solutions.  However, current knowledge of ICT companies Much higher than that in urban governance. The municipal government, being able to identify their needs adequately, Or suggestions they receive their correct value. This can take us to the wrong investment decisions, or lead to inappropriate decisions.  Possibly increasing urban management competence with regard to ICT solutions for smart, sustainable cities, City managers and ICT companies will be of interest. The need for smart cities by stakeholders in Europe Union, The guidelines for sustainable cities and Has been developed to attract the public eye, was diagnosed.

Governance

Sustainable Smart city is not only the needs of internal communication toolsBut the organizations in which actors should be revised The city also needs to be involved in planning and governance. In addition to the Types of ICT in the form of coordinated action, you must configure the role of coordinator. Another important point from the perspective of sustainability and the need to identify strategic and above Assess the impact of ICT investment. Lee et al., "A specialized group of smart With a variety of roles and skills, to promote the development of smart city By other public agencies, is also diagnosed "offer. By focusing on smart, sustainable cities, such as the group's mission is to promote smart, sustainable city development

Relinquished. In time, such a figure would be required competence To evaluate the proposals offered by ICT companies, as well as moderating role Top-down and bottom-up approaches, develop.

Source: Hӧjer & Wangel, 2015

Challenges of building Smart cities

Hollands (2008: 315) in his comments Smart cities The definition of " Wired cities" defines Although this cannot be the only criterion for determining that: Leading Smart cities need to be with people and On the other hand, the equation of human capital to start their own business Rather than blindly believe that information technology (IT) alone can Transform and improve cities.

Critical factor in the success of any society, company or traded risky, People and how they interact with each other. This is because For Avlandz most important thing is not about information technology capacity Smart cities are created for this type of communication, but also the ability to participate in social development, Environmental and cultural. Namely to act as smart  communication so that The use of technologies which enable cities to train and empower people Thus making it possible for them to be able to provide the community In discussions about the environment that are related not only to live but to participate. It should be emphasized that this in turn is possible only when the process of socialization within the community (ibid. 316):

Real change in the balance of power between the use of information technology by businesses, Governments, communities and people who live in cities, and they also seek to balance economic growth with stability. ... In short, Smart city "real" benefits of information technology Democratic debate about the kind of city that wants to be and type of people who wants to improve their lives.

Avlandz (2008: 316) suggests that to achieve this important they are really Smart cities have higher risk to be undertaken by technology, Power transfer, the following inequalities afford to lose and redefine the meaning of being Smart If you want to preserve it as a noble. (Quoted from: deakin, 2013)

In this study, in contrast to previous papers on a broad set of principles and Information technology programs such issues as the most important success factors or major challenges discussed, so management issues and Organization in a broad context for the success of e-government and smart information technology projects examined. For example, Garcia and emission Pardo list of success factors and challenges that were successfully trade Governments have been obtained by the use of ICT this paper provides definitions to better serve the rich. Perceptual at the same time offers a different set of factors to understand the principles and applications of smart . These factors together provide the framework for smart cities to study the factors determining the success of the program and principles used in smart  eight branches of these factors are:

First challenge: Smart city infrastructure

Dozens of service which has been created Dedicated to providing intelligence capabilities. In the city are smart , yet lack of standards and Or infrastructure projects that we can as the de facto standard in the specification and we are developing their services. One of the major efforts in the field of smart urban planning, Smart Santander project, which is where One of the biggest test of the origin of Santander is located. (Spain). This project as an urban-scale test can be considered that Research in the field of Smart City provides and to identify key technologies, services and Social and economic factors that are involved in the smart city's ecosystem.

One of the main issues in Smart problem "islands of information" when creating the service and expand services as standalone applications. Examples of this type of service, traffic management, human dynamics, bike paths, Measurement of cell population and so on. Requena, 2014

The availability and quality of ICT infrastructure is critical in smart cities the smart grid is in fact an essential role in building smart cities. ICT infrastructure including wireless infrastructure, fiber channels, WiFi networks, Centers, kiosks, wireless and service-oriented information systems. (Anthopoulos, 2010) Run a major role in the development of ICT infrastructure and smart. Also it depends on the availability and performance of the management and organization is done also refer to the limits of our technology and e-government Creative use of ICT for smart cities like e-government is a creative act. Abraham and Aran number of factors that are relevant to introduce ICT components. Table 6 presents a set of challenges that IT has accumulated in 3 dimensions shows (Infrastructure, IT, security, privacy and operational costs) Ebrahim and Irani, 2005

Dimension

IT infrastructure 

Security and Privacy

Operating costs

Challenges

Lack of integrity in the public system

Due to the built-in system integration capabilities are limited

Lack of knowledge about interoperability

Availability and compatibility with the system software and applications

Threat from hackers and intruders.

Within the threat of viruses and malware Crowe

Privacy of personal information

High cost of application security solutions

Access

High cost of IT and consulting professionals

High cost of IT

Installation and running costs and maintenance information

Cost of Education

Ebrahim and Irani, 2005

 


Second challenge: Financial and Funding

Smart cities seeking to improve environmental quality and Of life, expensive communications infrastructure and have information, new technologies which are used in and they require a lot of funds, many of these costs will come running after But the challenge is that the costs of providing and Are the costs of providing the public with no help?

Way to becoming a Smart city requires continuous innovation and investment, the range of sectors such as infrastructure investment alone. Through public investment budget is not. Although the use of investment objectives will be achieved in the public interest and a lack of success in the market But it would be a risky investment, private sector investment is needed and More investment organizations. (Reviglio et al, 2013)

Examples of civic organizations and funding model used for smart applications

City of all the funds needed to provide Smart applications.

The municipal budget started working with technology suppliers or part of the funds to pay.

The cost of implementing smart city’s own, but other energy resources (such as senior government officials) provides.

The municipal budget does not provide the physical capital and labor to the organization and / or the supplier's technology.

COR, Rio de Janeiro

EDB Singapore, Budget Living lab projects

MONUM Boston;

SF Park San Francisco

AIM Amsterdam

IDA Singapore.

deakin, 2014

 

Smart design is a major factor in the city's economy and each city with a high degree of competitive economy, it seems that Feature of a smart city and it is also one of the key indicators to measure Competition growing cities in the capacity as an economic engine. Jerifitger and colleagues have the structure has 6 main components of the smart city (Economy, smart, smart people, smart government, Smart mobility, smart environment and smart living). (Giffinger et al, 2007) defines the operation of Smart economic factors, including general economic competition As innovation, entrepreneurship, trademarks, Productivity and labor market flexibility and integration Studies in many national and international markets by IBM (Institute for Business Value) reported that Trade as the main system defines smart  cities And include utilities, civil system, Business systems, transportation systems, Communications systems, water systems and energy systems. System capacity is smart business Of ICT and new processes and business intelligence the smart technology that is used by companies. Smart cities are designed in such a way that Capacity to develop information technology and Agenda for change with industrial action and Provide business development. Environment for Economic development is a central issue in smart (IBM, 2013). Economic results of the City Smart trade, employment, workforce development and Improvements in production.

Third challenge: the government and its relationship with Smart city

New challenges in the knowledge-based economy relies on changes Technological innovations are emerging. Two sets of forces and tendencies toward smart  communities Government increase the importance of strengthening the competitiveness city and new governance capabilities that are possible by ICT. However, to date only a few studies exist. Relations between the government and city looked Smart.

There are a vast number of studies worldwide Smart communities affected by recent thinking on their own. In 1994 Saksnyan key determinants of competitiveness described local and Silicon Valley's success is attributed to the establishment of networked systems highly competitive and simultaneously work on formal methods and informally with each other and with local institutions such as universities and government agencies. Since then it has been argued that the communication system provides a network of government agencies, Private and academic learning and collective intelligence of competitive advantage for local places. So it is said that the success of local places greatly influenced by the effectiveness of the collection and use all the knowledge and Technology community through sustainable transfer of knowledge - intensive relations, Network of individuals, companies and institutions that are connected to form a set. (Deakin, 2014 quoted Hourani and Wells, 2005)

At the beginning of the twentieth century challenges facing municipal governments in the countries of Europe Union Information and communication technology (ICT) to develop competitive cities in the world becoming more complex and more connected to one another. However, this requires not only technological innovation, but also reform and Institutional policy requires that citizens be involved in the democratic activities to improve the competitive advantage of urban and regional development. E-governance is generally in the form of rules, processes and Behavioral known that the exercise of power at various levels, particularly related to freedom, Participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence (the paradigm of "good governance") affect, Change has emerged as an important driving (Europe Commission, 2007). Europe Union's strategic priorities simultaneous development of "sustainability" and "competitiveness" strengthened and focused on enhancing the durability of the potential and capacity of local and global markets highly competitive locations (Europe Commission, 2002).

In response to the increasing pressures of globalization and ICT, Urban communities have begun to sketch Smart cities. The global-local context, the Smart city competitiveness, innovation requires collaboration and Students learn as well. Smart cities can be considered as a template How e-governance that provides the opportunity for local systems Global forces and to control their results to create new opportunities for social, political and economic use. (Deakin, 2014)

Table: Challenges and Strategies for the management and organization

Challenges

Strategies

Project size

Attitudes and behavior of urban management

Urban users and service provider diversity of citizenship

The lack of homogeneity of organizational goals and projects

Multiple and conflicting objectives

Resistance to Change

Contradictions and conflicts

Skills and expertise of the project team

Sophisticated management of IT (technical and social skills)

Clear objectives and rationale

Identification of relevant stakeholders

Intervention planning applications

Significant components of milestones and deliverables

Good communication

Development of business processes prior

Training

Budgeting and creative enough

List of new and desirable

Gil-Garcia and Pardo, 2015

Fourth challenge: learning and teaching skills

Smart cities on technology and clever use of urban space and the location of the form, with its technology day by day and tries to discover and using their talents and creativity. The teaching and learning of citizens and How to achieve it, is a major challenge. The following review of the Intel practice largely this position is reflected. This review of cases Begins like the capacity created by the practice integrated model for the joint design of E-Government services and electronic technology that Electronics City is the underlying platform, a platform that as a solution to the learning needs of a virtual organization and knowledge transfer requirements are developed. It then Search for Solutions Based on Smart city Gradual and phased logic with which to deal with learning needs and challenges created by Knowledge transfer requirements of virtual organizations exist have been adopted. From this point on the platform E-learning management system Digital library for this purpose have been expressed.  After doing this, according to the characteristics of creative this platform, management systems and digital libraries have been paid and Features are consistent semantics of learning, provides a wealth of knowledge and will be reviewed. It pays to review it here How learning, knowledge management and digital library services All are available as e-government services Electronics City, combined with platform are available over the internet. (Deakin, 2014)

 




Fifth challenge: urban design in Smart cities

In the design of smart cities and achieve Quality of urban design, has several commercial companies like IBM, Zimens etc., operate, but the smart urban space is still unclear. The challenge is how smart cities Administrative levels and environmental quality are created? How does the city need to be smarter? Some of Beyond General principles of Resilient Urban Cells, New Mobility Systems – Electric, Resilient Energy Systems, Living Space on Demand, Urban Food Production, Responsive Technologies, Trust Networks, data is presented for the design of smart  cities (dadkhah & shabazi, 2015)

Sixth challenge: to predict possible Challenges of and identify solutions in cooperation

The study evaluated the cities, cities that work the way they Must challenges may arise from this partnership arose from  For example, attempts to predict the technological gap of "bottom up" All that was inappropriate for the collective thoughts of hackathon  The city has been unresponsive to community input. The involvement of the skeletal framework should Understand and engage in close cooperation and clear communication between partners simplify processes and applications. The common objectives clearly defined and Resolve gaps such as gaps in the level of confidence (seen in Singapore) Different running styles (seen in Boston that some sectors More than technology oriented and more focused on one) and Irrecoverable problems and data system (seen in Rio de Janeiro) In many of these examples, the human element as a critical factor in Maintain close cooperation and Rfh the gaps listed. While the dimensions of the crisis should be a key element of the framework partnership. (Ching, 2013)

Seventh challenge: the challenge of technology

A smart addition to the cases stipulated in Based on a set of smart computing technologies that the most important underlying components and services used. The new generation of smart computing hardware and software online male. And network technologies implies that Equipped with knowledge of information technology systems The real world of advanced computational process To help people more smart  decisions About choices and take actions that business processes It is desirable to optimize the commercial balance sheet. (Washburn e al, 2010) ICT important driving smart city the combination of CT with developmental urban landscape a lot of changes and social opportunities Offers they can manage despite the advantage of the development and performance of listed Of ICT in cities begin to increase and Digital to promote differentiation. (Odendaal, 2003) The city managers must be based on the performance of CT Availability of resources. The capacity and consent of society and it also varies according to culture and traditions into account certain factors are some challenges with the Technologies in small towns Table by Ebrahim and Irani (2005) has been proposed.

Several of the projects are the smart city projects with the aim of enhancing the quality of life and better services for citizens are done. So many stakeholders involved in the project in a number of cities in need of Better governance for the management and implementation of these projects rule defines: In fact, the rule of law, administrative law and judicial decisions that impose a series of activities, prescribed and implemented. At the same activities and production Distribution of public goods and services. The particular compound also includes processes that With regard to rules and standards to achieve the exchange of information. The study found that e-government is a key project challenges Statements concerning one of the major factors of progress or failure of the project. 4 main shareholder relations can be seen: Ability to establish cooperation between shareholders, management support, Create a unified structure and work under different jurisdictions. In some cities the advent of information and communication technology (ICT) to create a better government. The state in which the ICT is used Smart as a rule widely known that the set of Technology, people, policies, resources, and social norms and show us It also identifies the factors and information to support the activities of city government interact Foster said the main part of city is a smart smart  indeed. (Chourabi et al, 2012) Therefore, the major challenge for the design of smart Count. According to Muyj the management of government is necessary. Lemma also focuses on the hero who is working with all stakeholders and this factor recognizes as the main factor in a good state. Smart government plays an important role in the smart city. Smart government based on citizen participation and public-private partnerships can be built. According to Johnson and Hansen believes in smart government needs to implement a Transparent and accountable infrastructure have the infrastructure to collaborate, share information, Integration and communication services can help. Table 4. Shows Factors related government briefly. (Shahbazi et al, 2013)

Challenges

Dimension

IT curriculum

Failure to implement and integrate the skills and culture

IT skills

Lack of cross-sectorial cooperation

Lack of coordination among the group

Blurred vision IT management

Politics

Cultural issues

 

Organizational

 

Source: Ebrahimi and Irani, 2005

 

Conclusion

The future challenges call for new ways of thinking, innovation, change, getting things done is to organize them. Not only strategies, Ideas and new ways of meeting the challenges of society, But also creatively active participation of a relationship crucial to the realization of A conversion of the show. This is not about who has the drive, But about finding a driver is mutual. A city of the future must A smart city social community that is able to convert a range of collaborative initiative where it occurs. A city that combines the best of both world. In a sense, a city-based society, which values ​​are active citizens and people and includes initiatives from the community and the city embraces smart and extent of future possibilities from technology related initiatives, including open data, Sites with a focus on innovation and technology.

Smart, sustainable cities, is a cumulative sense. In this paper we have shown that each of the main components of the concept -smart, stable and cities- to their size and in their place are important. Cities without the use of smart technology (ICT) for sustainable built, Smart Technology and Sustainable Development in cities that communication cannot be used. Sustainable technologies for sustainable development also can Used in cases of non-urban areas. Only when all three aspects are interwoven, when smart technologies (ICT) are used to make cities more sustainable, can smart, sustainable cities (SSC).

In fact, the concept of sustainable cities is Smart for all players and all perspectives. For example, from a sustainability perspective, it can be argued that a town, the use of ICT and what is not, is very important, and it is important to be a town. Thus, the concept of sustainable city will be enough. These views are correct, but from a broader perspective, the concept of Smart, sustainable cities precisely because of the above points will be needed.

Related to the concept of sustainable cities and towns are smart , increase awareness the potential use of ICT to promote urban sustainability among planners, IT companies and policymakers are. The concept of smart, sustainable cities can be described as a framework or a shared vision for new partnerships, create new business models and new ways to serve urban development. This, in turn, need to avoid entrapment of the technological challenges Smart, sustainable urban development, and in turn, highlights the use of an active approach for applications actor networks, government and politics.

Also, the definition of Smart, sustainable cities, because of the ongoing competition for the interpretation of this concept is important. It has positive connotations, and so his association with this concept, it seems useful. By focusing on the definition, development of ICT-based sustainability concerns can be a competitive advantage. With emphasis on both Smart and sustainable development of ICT, rather than pure technical development (Where the "solution" of new solutions to the problems facing not necessarily) more will be achieved through stability problems.

In this paper, we define the following definition for smart, sustainable cities:

A smart city, urban

• The needs of its current residents sees

• Without the ability of future generations to meet their own needs or for other people to affect, and so, from local or global environmental limits are not violated, and

• The relationship between top-down and bottom-up initiatives, more study is needed;

• Strategies to strengthen the competitiveness of urban governance is needed; and

• Development of sustainable models for smart narrative verdict must be considered.

• Where it is supported by ICT. However, even if such a definition of the actors in the private sector and Gained wide public acceptance, many challenges remain in the field of application of this concept:

• Assessment methods should be developed and used to ensure that cities are known as smart, sustainable cities, truly sustainable;

• Possibly reducing measures for the implementation of policies for sustainable cities Smart is required. Otherwise, the return effects (response), will neutralize the positive effects;

[ یکشنبه 24 بهمن‌ماه سال 1395 ] [ 09:05 ب.ظ ] [ کاره ] [ نظرات (1) ]
.: Weblog Themes By WeblogSkin :.
آمار سایت
تعداد بازدید ها: 228334